White Papers

Optimizing the Plug Assist Geometry Using Simulations (PDF) This paper explains the use of some simplifying assumptions for thermoforming simulations to allow an efficient design of optimum plug assist geometry.

FEA Simulations of Thermoforming - Using Hyperelastic Material Properties (PDF) The use of a hyperelastic material model will work well for most thermoformable polymers.  Spending time and expense to develop a visco-elastic material model for each polymer is usually not necessary.

Preform Optimization (PDF)  This paper presents a technique that converts finite element analysis of the injection blow molding process into a design/optimization tool.